MB 495 C/D - Microbial Diversity - Final Exam

1. What are the three primary evolutionary branches of life? (5 points)

2. How do membrane lipids in Archaea differ from those of other organisms? (10 points)

3. Of bacterial and eukaryal RNA polymerases I, II & III, which does the archaeal enzyme most closely resemble? (5 points)

4. Describe one example of how protein synthesis in Archaea resembles that of (most) Eukarya but not Bacteria. (10 points)

5. What are the three general phenotypes found in Archaea? (5 points)

6. Describe (perhaps with a diagram) how halophilic Archaea obtain energy (ATP) from light. (10 points)

7. Why are the Archaezoans (e.g. Giardia, Trichomonas) anaerobic, unlike most other eukaryotes? (5 points)

8. What is the predicted phenotype of the 'last common ancestor'? (5 points)

9. Describe what is meant by the term 'progenote'. (10 points)

10. What was the 'RNA World'? (5 points)

11. What are the major differences between the Oparin 'Primordial Soup' and Wächtershäuser 'Primordial Sandwich' theories for the origin of life. (10 points)

12. What are the two most likely sources of organic compounds on the early Earth? (5 points)

13. Why aren't viruses included in most molecular phylogenetic trees? (5 points)

14. Why is the photosynthetic protistEuglene not an appropriate model for studying plant photosynthesis, whereas Chlamydomonas (a green alga) is? (10 points)

15. In what way is the comic tree below fundamentally flawed? (5 points - write your answer beneath the comic )