MB409 Midterm exam #2 - April 8, 2001 Name __________________________________________

(Sorry - I seem to have lost the key I made for this last year - this is a Q&D html export of the actual exam)

1. What are the 3 primary evolutionary branches of life? (5 points)




2. Sulfur respiring and sulfur oxidizing organisms both convert elemental sulfur to hydrogen sulfide. What, then, is the difference between these two kinds of metabolism? (10 points)


















3. Indicate the predominantly thermophilic evolutionary groups and their thermophilic ancestry by highlighting the branches on the tree below. (5 points)

4. Deinococcus radiodurans is extremely resistant to dessication (drying) and irradiation. What is the basis for these abilities? (5 points)











5. Ciliates have two types of nucleii. What are they called and how do they differ? (5 points)

















6. Describe (perhaps with a diagram as well) how halophilic Archaea get ATP from light. 10 points)



















11. What are the three possibilities for the origin of a virus? (5 points)






7. During logarithmic growth, cyanobacteria need to make a fair amount of NADPH (for CO2 fixation) from photosynthesis, but in stationary phase growth they need only small amounts of NAPDH. How does their 2-photosystem photosynthetic process allow for them to vary the ratio of ATP:NADPH generated from light? (10 points)



















8. Compare the endospores produced by low G+C gram-positive Bacteria with the spores produced by high G+C Gram-positive Bacteria. (5 points)
















9. List 5 phylogenetic groups of Bacteria from which there are few, or no, cultivated species. How do we know they exist if we can’t grow them? (10 points)
















10. Most methanogens make methane from _______ and _______. (5 points)



12. Give me the names of 2 genera (i.e. genus names) from each of 15 of these 16 phylogenetic groups. Cross out the group you chose not to answer. A list of genera extracted from the lecture notes is included on the next page to help jog your memory (other genera are acceptable, of course). The tree in question 3 may also help. (1 point each for a total of 30 points)

Aquifex group __________________________ ____________________________
Thermotoga group __________________________ ____________________________
Green non-sulfur Bacteria __________________________ ____________________________
Deinococcus group __________________________ ____________________________
Planctomycetes __________________________ ____________________________
Spirochaetes __________________________ ____________________________
Cytophaga group __________________________ ____________________________
Alpha-purple Bacteeria __________________________ ____________________________
Beta-purple Bacteria __________________________ ____________________________
Gamma-purple Bacteria __________________________ ____________________________
Delta-purple Bacteria __________________________ ____________________________
low G+C Gram-positive Bacteria __________________________ ____________________________
high G+C Gram-positive Bacteria __________________________ ____________________________
Diplomonads __________________________ ____________________________
Euglenoidozoans __________________________ ____________________________
Crenarchaea __________________________ ____________________________
Euryarchaea __________________________ ____________________________



Acanthamoeba
Acetobacterium
Acidianus
Acidobacterium
Aquifex
Archaeoglobus
Arthrobacter
Bacillus
Bacteriodes
Barbulanympha
Bdellovibrio
Beggiotoa
Borrelia
Bradyrhizobium
Calderobacterium
Caldotoga
Campylobacter
Caulobacter
Cenarchaeum
Chlamydophila
Chlamydia
Chlamydomonas
Chlorobium
Chlorocrinis
Chloroflexus
Chromatium
Citrobacter
Clostridium
Coprothermobacter
Corynebacterium
Cytophaga
Dehalococcoides
Deinobacter
Deinococcus
Desulfovibrio
Desulfurococcus
Desulfurolobus
Dictyoglomus
Dictyostellium
Enterobacter
Enterococcus
Erwinia
Escherichia
Eubacterium
Euglena
Fervidobacterium
Fibrobacteer
Flavobacterium
Flexistipes
Frankia
Fusobacterium
Gemmata
Geothrix
Geotoga
Giardia
Halobacterium
Haloferax
Helicobacter
Heliobacterium
Heliothrix
Herpetosiphon
Hexamita
Holophaga
Hydrogenobacter
Isophaera
Klebsiella
Lactobacillus
Leptospira
Leuconostoc
Listeria
Meiothermus
Metallosphaera
Methanobacterium
Methanococcus
Methanomicrobium
Methanopyrus
Methanosarcina
Methanospirillum
Micrococcus
Mycobacterium
Mycoplasma
Myxococcus
Natronobacterium
Neochlamydia
Niesseria
Nitrobacter
Nitrospira
Nocardia
Nostoc
Oscillochloris
Parachlamydia
Paramecium
Petrotoga
Pfisteria
Pirellula
Planctomyces
Plasmodium
Prochloron
Prosthecobacter
Pseudomonas
Pyrobaculum
Pyrococcus
Pyrodictium
Rhizobium
Rhodobacter
Rhodocyclus
Rhodopseudomonas
Rhodospirillum
Rickettsia
Roseiflexus
Salmonella
Shigella
Simkania
Sphaerobacter
Spirochaeta
Spirogyra
Sporomusa
Staphylococcus
Staphylothermus
Stella
Streptococccus
Streptomyces
Stygiolobus
Sulfolobus
Synergistis
Thermococcus
Thermocrinus
Thermodesulfobacterium
Thermodiscus
Thermofilum
Thermoleophilum
Thermomicrobium
Thermopallium
Thermoplasma
Thermoproteus
Thermosipho
Thermotoga
Thiobacillus
Treponema
Trichomonas
Trypanosoma
Ultramicrobacteria
Verrucomicrobium
Waddlia
Yersinia